The Social Media box included in WordPress’ Edit Post page is the only way to see all scheduled social messages for a certain post:
This box includes a timeline of all the social messages promoting this post that will be shared upon its publication. If the post is already published, you’ll see all the scheduled messages that will be shared at any time from now on.
Another option for discovering which social messages are related to a certain post is using Nelio’s editorial calendar. If you hover over a post in the calendar, related social messages and editorial tasks will be highlighted, whereas everything else will be blurred:
However, this doesn’t guarantee that you’ll see all related elements—if some messages are to be published in future months, you won’t see them in the calendar (unless, of course, you change the currently-visible month).